Woven Text

In ancient Hebrew writings, emphasis was often shown by giving the text a specific shape which I like to call woven text because it resembles the weaving of fabric. This writing style is first found in the Torah, but it also appears in other books like the Talmud. It was considered to be beautiful while at the same time conveying more meaning with more depth.

The creation narrative

The creation narrative is an example of order created from chaos, just like what happens when a weaver takes single threads and gives them a shape by creating a piece of cloth.1

The narrative starts with a prologue, showing the initial situation

In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth. The earth was without form and void, and darkness was over the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters.
Gen. 1:1-2

When God spoke His word, order was brought to the formless void earth. And not only did He bring order, but the way he did it was cleverly designed and ordered. The following table depicts the way he did this.

# Dividers/Vessels
motionless, singular
“And God called”
moving, plural
Celestial 1 Light & Darkness Sun, moon, stars 4
Middle divider 2 Waters above & below Fish & birds 5
Terrestrial 3 Land mass & waters
Land animals
7 Rest

During the first half of the week, God created vessels that were populated during the second half. These vessels were created through the separation of different elements, while they were populated during the second half of the week.

  1. Gen. 1:3-5: On the first day, light and darkness were separated. Before that, there were no days. As such, this is also the beginning of time measurement.
  2. Gen. 1:6-8: On the second day, the waters above (the sky) were separated from the waters below.
  3. Gen. 1:9-10: On the third day, God separated the water masses (oceans, lakes, etc.) from the dry land.Gen. 1:11-13: God finished this first 3-day cycle, the separations, by perfecting it through the creation of a first type of life: plants.
  4. Gen. 1:14-19: On the fourth day, God populated/filled the light and darkness by creating sun, moon and stars, and He specifically made them with the purpose of knowing the date and time.
  5. Gen. 1:20-23: On the fifth day, God filled the skies and the oceans by creating birds and fish.
  6. Gen. 1:24-25: On the sixth day, God populated the land mass with land animals.Gen. 1:26-31: He then finished the second 3-day cycle of creation by perfecting it through the creation of mankind.
  7. Gen. 2:1-3: On the seventh day, God rested. This is how He introduced the day of rest, the Shabbat (שַׁבָּת‎, Saturday).

On a symbolic level of interpretation, it is interesting to note that according to the creation narrative, there has never been an end to the Shabbat. As such, we are still living in the day of rest, as the words depicting a new day (“And there was evening and there was morning”) are missing at the end of the narrative.

After the first account, the story of the creation is told a second time from a slightly different perspective (Gen. 2:4-25), with a more detailed on the creation of humanity, while other parts that were told in the first account (Gen. 1) were deliberately left out here.

The plagues in Egypt

The usage of woven text becomes much clearer in another story of the bible, the account of the 10 plagues in Egypt.2 Here, the woven creation is systematically undone by countering the creation narrative.

To show it more easily, I numbered the plagues and coded them: the numbers 1-10 show which plague it is, the letters L, M & R describe the wording used and the letters A-C describe the level or place the plague comes from.

Announcement L
Changes in natural order
Public meets personal;
Changes in animal kingdom
Personal experience
Trigger Affected „Go to Pharaoh in the morning…“ „Come to Pharaoh!“ Nothing
A – Aaron points staff towards the earth Everyone 1-LA
Ex. 7:14-25

Ex. 7:26-8:11

Ex. 8:12-15

Gnats (lice)
Plagues from the bottom up
B – Middle, no pointing
Only Egyptians 4-LB
Ex. 8:20-32

The mix (often translated as flies)
Ex. 9:1-7

Death of livestock
Ex. 9:8-12

Boils (skin sickness)
Plagues from the middle
C – Moses points towards the sky Only Egyptians 7-LC
Ex. 9:13-35

Ex. 10:1-20

Ex. 10:21-29

Darkness (depression)
Plagues from the top down
God Only Egyptians 10
Ex. 11-12:32

Death of the firstborns, Pesach

More information could be added to this table, considering how deep the text is. However, it makes more sense to list some of the additional insights separately:

  • After plagues 1 to 5, Pharaoh decides to harden his own heart. After five plagues, it seems as if God is saying: “If you want to have a hardened heart, you can have it.” Knowing everything, God had announced to Moses that this would happen (Ex. 4.21), but he still gave Pharaoh a chance to change it.
  • Pharaoh’s magicians manage to duplicate plagues 1 and 2, but they can not undo them. Starting with plague 3, they can no longer duplicate them, while the text explicitly states they are affected by plague 6. Similarly, the devil always tries to fake God’s work but never truly manages to do so.
  • God systematically unweaves the creation story: He starts on the ground (Line A: Aaron points towards the earth) and ends in the sky (Line C: Moses points towards the sky). The signs not only invert creation, but negate it. The goal is to bring chaos upon Egypt:
Dividers/Vessels mix
Additional plagues
Attacks on the populated vessels
A – Earth (below) 1-LA
Ex. 7:14-25

Waters turn to blood
Ex. 7:26-8:11
Ex. 8:12-15

Earth produces gnats (lice)
B – Middle 4-LB
Ex. 8:20-32

The divider (above/below) becomes a mix (often translated as flies)
Ex. 9:1-7
Ex. 9:8-12

Moses & Aaron mix above and below: Boils (skin sickness)
C – Sky (above) 7-LC
Ex. 9:13-35

Hail (lights mixed with ice) falls from the sky
Ex. 10:1-20
Ex. 10:21-29

Darkness replaces light
Ex. 11-12:32

Death of the firstborns, Pesach

To illustrate the undoing of creation, these are a few examples:

  • The water that was separated from the earth on the third day of creation is transformed into blood during the first plague, therefore making it impure.
  • The earth from which land animals were created on the sixth day attacks them during the second plague.
  • The separations between the above and below (creation day 2, and population on day 5) are destroyed by mixing them again.
  • In Hebrew, the word used for “hail” (plague 7) is a mix between lights and ice. When those lights fall down, it is like an undoing of the creation of sun, moon and stars (creation day 4)
  • Darkness (plague 9) replaces light (creation day 1)
  • Finally, using a Sod level of interpretation, Jewish Scholars are saying the following about the 10th plague:1
    At the very end, God killed all the firstborn sons of the unbelieving Egyptians. This opposes the wording of creation’s prologue (Genesis 1.1: “In the Beginning, …”) by describing the end like an epilogue.
    The word for the firstborn son in Hebrew (Bakur בכור, from the same root comes “first fruits of the crop” בכר) is a synonym of “the beginning” (ראשית, ruashit). Jewish scholars claim that Genesis 1.1 could therefore be read as “Through the firstborn, God created the heavens and the earth”.1 As such, the death of the firstborn sons inverts the prologue of the creation narrative.

As the writing style of woven text shows, God is a God of order. He creates order to replace chaos, which he does systematically, in an ordered way.
Similar structures can be found throughout the bible, be it on the level of a few verses up to entire books. Finding them can be tricky, but they can help to show the intent of the message (e.g. the plagues are meant to undo creation).


1 Moshe Kline, The Lord Spoke to Moses in Tables: Part 1, Part 2

2 Chaver.com; The Ways of Holiness (Chapter 4: The Nine Plagues)


The Story Of Rabbi Eliezer

The following story from the Babylonian Talmud (Seder Nezikin, Baba Metzia 59b speaks for itself:

[…] Rabbi Eliezer brought forward every imaginable argument, but they did not accept them. Said he to them:

– ‘If the halachah agrees with me, let this carob-tree prove it!’

Thereupon the carob-tree was torn a hundred cubits out of its place — others affirm, four hundred cubits.

– ‘No proof can be brought from a carob-tree,’ they retorted.

Again he said to them:

– ‘If the halachah agrees with me, let the stream of water prove it!’

Whereupon the stream of water flowed backwards

– ‘No proof can be brought from a stream of water,’ they rejoined.

Again he urged:

– ‘If the halachah agrees with me, let the walls of the schoolhouse prove it,’ whereupon the walls inclined to fall.

But Rabbi Joshua rebuked them, saying:

– ‘When scholars are engaged in a halachic dispute, what have ye to interfere?’

Hence they did not fall, in honour of Rabbi Joshua, nor did they resume the upright, in honour of Rabbi Eliezer; and they are still standing thus inclined.

Again he said to them:

– ‘If the halachah agrees with me, let it be proved from Heaven!’

Whereupon a Heavenly Voice cried out:

– ‘Why do ye dispute with Rabbi Eliezer, seeing that in all matters the halachah agrees with him?’

But Rabbi Joshua arose and exclaimed:

– ‘It is not in heaven.’

What did he mean by this? — Said Rabbi Jeremiah: That the Torah had already been given at Mount Sinai; we pay no attention to a Heavenly Voice, because You (God) have long since written in the Torah at Mount Sinai, After the majority must one incline.

Rabbi Nathan met Elijah and asked him:

– What did (God) the Holy One, Blessed be He, do in that hour?

– He laughed [with joy], [Elijah] replied, saying, ‘My sons have defeated Me, My sons have defeated Me.’

It was said: On that day all objects which Rabbi Eliezer had declared clean were brought and burnt in fire. Then they took a vote and excommunicated him.

A number of issues appear with this story. The ones that are immediately obvious are listed below:

  • Nowhere in the Old Testament (Tanakh) does it say that one should follow the majority, as Rabbi Jeremiah claims. This is a statement from the Oral Law.
  • The main theme of this story is the “correct interpretation” of the Old Testament (Tanakh), instead of forming a relationship with God and of focussing on what God says about the passage.
  • This story allows the rabbis to supersede God’s word, i.e. to interpret it at their own will and to create new commandements that God never intended.
  • Using this story and other passages in the Talmud, the rabbis put themselves above God himself by claiming that he (God) has to conform to the interpretations of the rabbis.

This frame of mind makes me wonder whether it isn’t the fulfillment of the words of the prophet Jeremiah:

How can you say, ‘We are wise, and the law of the Lord is with us’? But behold, the lying pen of the scribes has made it into a lie.
Jeremiah 8.8

The wings of the Tallit

And wherever he came, in villages, cities, or countryside, they laid the sick in the marketplaces and implored him that they might touch even the fringe of his garment. And as many as touched it were made well.
Mark 6:56

Reading this passage has intrigued me for a long time. What is it about the fringes – or, in some translations, the corners – of someone’s clothes? Why would they be so important?

And there was a woman who had had a discharge of blood for twelve years, and though she had spent all her living on physicians, she could not be healed by anyone. She came up behind him and touched the fringe of his garment, and immediately her discharge of blood ceased.
Luke 8:43-44, see also Mat. 9:20ff & Mark 5:25ff

According to the Written Law (תּוֹרָה, Torah), the woman with the issue of blood was unclean for access to the temple and related religious duties (Lev. 15:25), and the people touching her would become unclean for temple service as well:

When a woman has a discharge, and the discharge in her body is blood, she shall be in her menstrual impurity for seven days, and whoever touches her shall be unclean until the evening.
Lev. 15:19

Therefore, if they had been in Jerusalem, this woman could not have touched anyone or been part of the religious rituals to have her sins forgiven. As a result, she was not allowed to come near God, an outcast from God’s presence. Now this woman wanted to be healed by Yeshua, who was surrounded by a crowd. But anything or anyone she touched would have become ceremoniously unclean as well, which, in a crowd where everyone wants to see this miracle-healer Yeshua, was probably hard to avoid. And anyone who would touch someone else who is unclean, would become unclean. So by the time this woman reached Yeshua, we can assume that the entire crowd was ceremoniously unclean. Had this occured in Jerusalem, where people had to be clean for temple service, she would have taken a big risk since the violation of this law was punishable by flogging. But since this was the Galilee, she was able to live a normal life. However, when she touched Yeshua, her impurity was taken away as she was healed, allowing her to once again go up to Jerusalem into God’s presence.

(1) A person who became impure by touching someone or something impure was required to confess and make a sacrificial offering to a priest to gain forgiveness for the sin.

(2) According to Maimonides, violation of a negative commandment (“You shall not…”) of the Torah is usually punishable by flogging.

(3) Touching human impurity also makes a person impure, but only when the person realizes he has done so.18

Yeshua called the woman back, to confront her publicly. Through this public confrontation, everybody present had to realise that they had become ceremoniously impure, unable to approach God. They now all needed to wait until evening to become ceremoniously pure again.

(4) Women who are menstruating or have recently given birth make others who touch or carry them impure.

(5) Anyone touching [a person with irregular genital flow] becomes impure and transfers impurity.

(6) A man is forbidden from getting close to his menstruating wife even if they are both fully clothed. […] He is not to come into contact with her even by touching her with his little finger.19

This woman was impure for 12 years, which is an allusion to the 12 tribes of Israel. Because of the issue of blood, this story says that Israel is ceremoniously unclean. Therefore, we can not receive forgiveness of our sins, since we can not participate in the temple rituals, until the impurity is removed. This is true, as there is no temple nowadays. This also means that we have no access to our God. And just like this woman, Israel is an outcast in exile.
As we need Messiah, who redeems, Messiah the son of Joseph, who comes to heal, purify and redeem us. Right after he has healed us, we can be forgiven of our sins and have access to God again.

Now I was wondering: Why did the people in the first century believe that touching the fringes of Yeshua’s clothes would heal them?
The word for the fringes, in the Greek manuscript, is κρασπεδου (kraspedon). The same word is used in the Septuagint for the Hebrew word tzitzit (ציצית). These are little knotted ritual fringes attached to clothes. So the people were actually touching the tzitzit on the corners of Yeshua’s clothes.

The Septuagint (short LXX) is an ancient translation from the 2nd century B.C. of the Hebrew Bible into Greek. The same language was later used in the New Testament manuscripts, and Hebrew terms that did not exist in Greek were often translated with the same words in both the Septuagint and the New Testament. It is therefore a valuable instrument to understand the underlying Hebrew culture of the New Testament writings.

Speak to the people of Israel, and tell them to make tzitzit on the corners of their garments throughout their generations, and to put a cord of blue on the tassel of each corner.
Num. 15:38

You shall make yourself tassels on the four corners of the garment with which you cover yourself.
Deut. 22:12

The tzitzit had to be attached to pieces of clothing that had four corners (Deut. 22:12).1 Nowadays, such a cloak would be called a tallit (טַלִּית, possibly Aramaic origin). In biblical times however, any four-cornered type of clothing would have tzitzit, so many Hebrew words were used for what is nowadays called tallit:

[The Tallit] was a rectangular mantle that looked like a blanket and was worn by men in ancient times. At the four corners of the tallit tassels were attached in fulfillment of the biblical commandment of *ẓiẓit (Num. 15:38–41). The tallit was usually made either of wool or of linen (Men. 39b) and probably resembled the abbayah (“blanket”) still worn by Bedouin for protection against the weather. […] After the exile, […] the tallit was discarded as a daily habit and it became a religious garment for prayer; hence its later meaning of prayer shawl.
Encyclopedia Judaica2

As a result of becoming a religious garment, it did not have to protect the body from the sun any more. Therefore, smaller tallits were made, which eventually had a shape more similar to a scarf (or shawl), i.e. long and narrow. This is the shape most tallits have nowadays.

A Tallit as worn during prayerA Tallit as worn during prayera

In Hebrew, the word for corners (כנף, kanaph) can also be translated as wings.4 It is the same word that is used for the wing of a bird, the wing of a building, the wings of cherubim (כְּרוּבִים, a type of angels), or figuratively for the speed of the wind (the wings of the wind).10 With this in mind, several biblical verses started making sense. The people in the first century were waiting for Messiah to come with healing in his wings:

But for you who fear my name, the servant of righteousness shall rise with healing in the corners (of his garment).
Mal. 4:2a

The tallit became a very important tool in a person’s prayer life. Every person would have their own way of folding it. Eventually, that they would even be buried with it: After being washed, the body would be wrapped in a white shroud, and one corner of the tallit would be cut off before it would be used to cover the deceased (often their head).6&14

Then Simon Peter came, following him, and went into the tomb. He saw the linen cloths lying there, and the face cloth, which had been on his head, not lying with the linen cloths but folded up in a place by itself.
John 20:6-7

In the context of a Jewish burial, the word used in this passage (σουδαριον, sudarium) is a synonym of tallit, as it is a piece of cloth covering the head of the deceased.7 (Note that the greek word also denotes other uses, like wiping one’s face, which no Jew would ever do with a tallit.) It seems like Yeshua, after his resurrection, folded his tallit and left it there for his disciples to see. This would have been a proof to them that the body was not stolen, as nobody other than Yeshua’s closest friends would have known how he usually folded his it.

The sun of righteousness5
In most translations, and in the Hebrew Masoretic text, Malachi 4:2 says:

But for you who fear my name, the sun of righteousness shall rise with healing in its wings.
Malachi 4:2a

Persian sun-god Ahura Mazdab

From its context, this verse is clearly messianic in its meaning. But it also seems to link to sun-god worship, as often, ancient sun-gods (like the Persian god Ahura Mazda, or the Egyption god Horus) were depicted with wings. In the picture on the right, the sun is symbolized with the circle in the middle, and it has wings.
However, God strongly condemns the worship of the sun (Ez. 8:14-16). So how can Messiah be linked to the sun, or by association, to any kind of sun-god worship?
The issue arises from a problem in the Hebrew Masoretic text. Until the Middle-Ages (ca. 1000 years ago), Hebrew did not use vowels. The word in this verse was simply written as שמש. however, vowels were introduced In the Masoretic text some time in the first millenium. the word in this verse had been orally transmitted as שֶמֶש (Shemesh), which means sun. A similar word with the identical spelling is שַׁמָּשׁ (Shamash), which means servant. This word is used to designate both the shamash candle on the Hanukkiah (see post on Hanukkah) and the blue thread of the tzitzit. Therefore, it is well possible that a mistake was made when the vowels were introduced or during the oral transmission of the pronounciation. With the probably correct pronounciation shamash, the verse says:

But for you who fear my name, the servant of righteousness shall rise with healing in his wings.
Malachi 4:2a

Design of the tzitzit

The tzitzit were meant to remind God’s people of His commandments: They were instituted right after a man broke the rest of the sabbath (שַׁבָּת , shabbat). The bible states that they should have one blue thread on each corner.
According to Jewish tradition, the tzitzit are to consist of 7 white strings (symbolizing God’s Spirits) and one blue string, called the helper or servant (שַׁמָּשׁ, Shamash).17 Then, always between every double knot, the blue string would be wound around the other ones 7, 8, 11 and 13 times respectively. This a complex form of writing using the numerical codes of the letters. It is similar to saying that a is 1, b is 2, etc., except that the codes are not linear. The system originates from ancient times, before symbols were used as numbers, as people needed a system to count.
The sum of the first three numbers equal 26, which is the numerical value of the name Yahweh (יהוה): The numerical values of each of the 4 letters, added up, is 26 (10 + 5 + 6 + 5). The number 11 equals the numerical value of the word one (אחד, echad).16 These two words are an allusion to a very important prayer:

Hear, O Israel: Yahweh is our God, Yahweh is one.
Deut. 6:4

Note that Sephardic Jews use 10-5-6-5 as the number of windings, a combination that represents directly the spelling of the name of God.
Note that most tzitzit do not have the blue thread any more, because the snail of which the blue dye was made was thought to be extinct for almost 2000 years. It has only recently been re-discovered.12 These colours are significant as blue and white represents royalty (see Esther 8:15a).

The word tzitzit (ציצית) comes from the root tzitz (ציצ), which means blossoms. But the tzitzit do not look like blossoms. This, again, shows how different Hebrew thinking is from Greek thinking: The Hebrews think about function, not appearance.
The function of a blossom is to bring fruit. And as the bible says, the tzitzit are to remind us of the commandments. And fruits are the symbol of doing God’s will.5

Uses of tallit-like cloaks in the Bible

The words for cloak used in the following passages are different. What unites them, however, is the use of the word corner (or wings, כנף, kanaph), which denotes the place where the tzitzit were.


The tallit has several uses in Jewish wedding traditions. Sometimes, a tallit is used as the canopy of the Chuppa (חוּפָּה), a canopy under which the couple stands during their wedding ceremony. It symbolized the room in which the marriage was consummated.8

A newly-wed Jewish couplec

Another use was that of a freshly married couple to be covered by a tallit (see illustration on the left).
The story of Ruth (רוּת, Rut) fits into this context: As a young widow without children, there was a danger that the family name would disappear from Israel. To prevent that, a childless widow could not get married outside of her former husband’s family (Deut. 25:5-10), so that her new husband would symbolically give her dead husband descendants (cf. Gen. 38:6-11).
Not being able to get married to anyone else, Ruth, the young childless widow, goes to talk to Boaz (בעז), a close relative of her deceased husband.

He said, “Who are you?” And she answered, “I am Ruth, your servant. Spread your wings over your servant, for you are my redeemer.”
Ruth 3:9

The symbolism of the cloak (nowadays called a tallit) covering the newly-wed couple appears here: Effectively, Ruth asks Boaz to marry her.


The mantle of Elijah (אֱלִיָּהוּ, Eliyahu) has a big significance. The word used for his mantle was אדרתו (Adarto), which means mantle of glory. This comes a lot closer than the previous occurrences to describing a tallit: As Elijah used it in prayer and to perform miracles, it became a mantle of glory, with tzitzit in its wings (corners).

Elijah used his tallit (mantle of glory) at the Jordan River to re-enact the miracle of the Joshua’s crossing the Jordan Elisha then repeated the same event after receiving Elijah’s tallit (2 Kings 2:14). At first thought, the use of the tallit in this way may seem irreverent. However, rather than acting inappropriately, Elijah and Elisha demonstrated the connections to the power the tallit represent. […] The tallit is a […] symbol of [God’s] holiness [and] has great authority when used in conjunction with faith.11

In this case, Elijah’s mantle of glory symbolises God-given authority. Elisha would not leave Elijah until he could himself receive his mantle as the symbol: By passing on his mantle, Elijah is passing on his authority (1 Kings 19:19).

Samuel and Saul

The tallit is considered to be holy, not in itself, but through its use in prayer and in respecting the Lord’s commandements.6 As such, it should not be defaced.9 Furthermore, a High Priest’s garment should not be ripped (Lev. 10:6, 21:10). With this in mind, the following story about Samuel (שמואל, Shmuel) and Saul (שאול, Shaul) becomes shocking:

As Samuel turned to go away, Saul seized the corner (kanaph), and it (the cloak) tore.
1 Sam. 15:27

There is this story where David is hiding in a cave because Saul is pursuing him, in order to kill him.

There was a cave, and Saul went in to relieve himself. Now David and his men were sitting in the innermost parts of the cave. And the men of David said to him, “Here is the day of which the Lord said to you, ‘Behold, I will give your enemy into your hand, and you shall do to him as it shall seem good to you.'” Then David arose and stealthily cut off a corner of Saul’s robe. And afterward David’s heart struck him, because he had cut off a corner of Saul’s robe. He said to his men, “The Lord forbid that I should do this thing to my lord, the Lord’s anointed, to put out my hand against him, seeing he is the Lord’s anointed.”
1 Sam. 24:3b-6

David, as a symbol of Saul’s authority being taken away, cuts of one of the corners of Saul’s cloak. But that also means that he wishes Saul to be dead, as cutting off one of the tzitzit was what would be done at a burial.
Immediately after showing this, he repents and says that he could not do this thing, i.e. kill Saul. When David confronts Saul, Saul’s reply is surprising:

And now, behold, I know that you shall surely be king, and that the kingdom of Israel shall be established in your hand.
1 Sam. 24:20

Saul recognizes that the authority was taken from him (and eventually, his life would be taken), but he also sees that David is righteous not to do himself what God has promised, but to let God do it.

References to the wings

With all of the symbolism of the wings of a tallit in mind, these passages give a new perspective:

He will cover you with his pinions, and under his wings you will find refuge; his faithfulness is a shield and buckler.
Ps. 91:4

The following verse shows a very common use of the tallit in prayer:

So I will bless you as long as I live; in your name I will lift up my hands. My soul will be satisfied as with fat and rich food, and my mouth will praise you with joyful lips, when I remember you upon my bed, and meditate on you in the watches of the night; for you have been my help, and in the shadow of your wings I will sing for joy. My soul clings to you; your right hand upholds me.
Ps. 63:4-8

The tallit’s corners symbolize Messiah’s wings, with which he covers His bride. What makes the tallit special is that it shows God’s authority, not ours. When using it, we symbolically put ourselves in His presence, under His authority.
The tallit also represents a small tent. Just like the original meaning of the Chuppa, it symbolises intimacy with the bridegroom:

Let me dwell in your tent forever! Let me take refuge under the shelter of your wings!
Ps. 61:4

Many more psalms talk about the protection of God’s wings (e.g. Ps. 57:1, 36:7, 17:8).

Other New Testament occurrences

Sell your tallit

Yeshua is talking to his disciples a very short time before his crucifixion. Note that the word he uses here is ιματιον (himation, meaning garment). This is the same kind of garment used for prayer, and it would nowadays be a tallit. Therefore, I will substitute it:

And he said to them, “When I sent you out with no moneybag or knapsack or sandals, did you lack anything?” They said, “Nothing.” He said to them, “But now let the one who has a moneybag take it, and likewise a knapsack. And let the one who has no sword sell his tallit and buy one.”
Luke 22:35-36

In a way, Yeshua is mocking the people who are listening. Although he does want them to get a few swords for the fulfillment of a prophecy, he is not really suggesting to fight. Instead, he is also making a reference about their faith. He could be paraphrased as saying: Those of you who do not have faith in me, you who do not want to rely on prayer (what the tallit was used for), go and rely on your money and on your own strength (here using swords as weapons).15


When a person wears a tallit, the length is measured so that the tzitzit reach the thighs. Furthermore, the tzitzit are a complex form of writing using the numerical codes of the letters (as mentioned above). The passage about Yeshua coming back as Messiah the king (son of David) describes an interesting appearance of his garment:

Then I saw heaven opened, and behold, a white horse! The one sitting on it is called Faithful and True […] He is clothed in a robe sprinkled in blood, and the name by which he is called is The Word of God. […] On his garment and on his thigh he has a name written, King of kings and Lord of lords.
Rev. 19:11a,13,16

Someone on the internet said about this passage: I recall reading the above passage and thinking to myself, ‘what kind of wild designer jeans is Jesus coming back wearing?’13 But Yeshua, being a Jew, would wear a tallit, and the tzitzit would be lying on His thighs.
The prophet Zechariah gives this image more context. During the reign of Yeshua on Earth (often called the millenium), people from all over the world will recognize those who belong to the Lord by the corners of a Jew’s cloak, where the tzitzit are.

Thus says the Lord of hosts: In those days ten men from the nations of every language shall take hold of the wings (כנף, kanaph) of a Jew, saying, “Let us go with you, for we have heard that God is with you.”
Zech. 8:23

The sentence God is with you (אלהים עמכם) uses the same words as the sentence God is with us (אלהים עמנו). Abbreviated, these two words become one: Immanuel (עִמָּנוּאֵל). This, incidentally, is one of the names of Messiah (cf. Isaiah 7:14), whom the entire world will recognize. And Yeshua’s name was also Immanuel, as announced by the angel Gabriel (cf. Mat. 1:23).

Symbolism in the design

I personally am impressed by the design of modern-day tallits: they have stripes, a whole on each corner and and a tzitzit attached to it. The stripes , which are on a person’s back while wearing it, symbolize the stripes left by the lashes when Yeshua was flogged before his crucifixion. The 4 holes on each corner symbolize the holes left by the nails, and the tzitzit are whips.
And a tallit is to be used daily in prayers, reminding us of the one we have pierced (Zech. 12:10) through our wrong-doings. And yet, this is the mantle of glory, the mantle of Yeshua’s glory.


1 Encyclopaedia Judaica, Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Vol. 19. 2nd ed. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. Zizit
2 Encyclopaedia Judaica, Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Vol. 19. 2nd ed. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. Tallit
3 Article on myjewishlearning.com
4 Entry in the Wiktionary: Kanaph
5 Jeff A. Benner, Video about the sun of righteousness
6 Article on the tallit blog
7 Joseph Gutmann, The Jewish Life Cycle, on Google Books
8 Abraham P. Bloch, The Biblical and historical background of Jewish customs and ceremonies (KTAV Publishing House, Inc., 1980), p. 32; on Google Books
9 Article on Chabad.org
10 David M. Rogers, 2006, article on Bibletruth.cc
11 Article on Keyboardsforchrist.com
12 Article on therefinersfire.org
13 Article on servantofmessiah.org
14 Article about the passover
15 Article by the divine coders
16 Article on Elisabethsyreministries.net
17 Article on Jewsforjesus.org
18 Website about the laws concerning ritual purity and cleanliness, chapter “General Considerations – Ritual Purity and Impurity”
19 Website about the laws concerning ritual purity and cleanliness, chapter “Impurity from Bodily Emissions”

a A Tallit as worn during prayer, Wikisource
b The Persian sun-god Ahura Mazda, Livius.org
c Amherst Media, wedding photographers

Additional Links

When does Messiah come?

It has been taught in accordance with Rabi Kattina: Just as the seventh year is one year of release in seven, so is the world: one thousand years out of seven shall be fallow, as it is written, And the Lord alone shall be exalted in that day,’ and it is further said, A Psalm and song for the Sabbath day, meaning the day that is altogether Sabbath — and it is also said, For a thousand years in thy sight are but as yesterday when it is past.
The Tanna debe Eliyyahu teaches: The world is to exist six thousand years. In the first two thousand there was desolation; two thousand years the Torah flourished; and the next two thousand years is the Messianic era, but through our many iniquities all these years have been lost.
Babylonian Talmud, Seder Nezikin, Sanhedrin 97a

The footnote to the last sentence says that Messiah should have come at the beginning of the last two thousand years; but that the delay is due to our sins.

The question is: Has he really not come, or have our sins made it impossible for us to see him? Our arrogance has put Messiah in a box, so that we would only listen to what we want: Messiah the son of David. But what if the last 2000 years were the two days of Messiah the son of Joseph?

The two roles of Messiah

And I will pour out on the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem a spirit of grace and pleas for mercy, so that, when they look toward me about him whom they have pierced, they shall mourn for him, as one mourns for an only child, and weep bitterly over him, as one weeps over a firstborn.
Zech. 12:10

What is the cause of the mourning? […] One explained, The cause is the slaying of Messiah the son of Joseph. […] It is well according to him who explains that the cause is the slaying of Messiah the son of Joseph, since that well agrees with the Scriptural verse.
Babylonian Talmud, Seder Mo’ed, Excerpt of Sukkah 52a6

Jewish tradition sometimes refers to two Messiah (מָשִׁיחַ, Mashiach) figures. Both are involved in delivering God’s people from exile (which is a result of sin) and ushering in the long-awaited Messianic era. Typically, when the term Messiah is used on its own, it is thought to refer to the Messiah coming as a redeemer who would bring the millennium of the Messianic Age and reign as king. However, when the teaching of the death of Messiah (מָשִׁיחַ, Mashiach) became established in Judaism as a result of several biblical teachings and prophecies, this did not fit in with the Messiah coming as a king.
This king is called Mashiach ben David (מָשִׁיחַ בֶּן־דָוִד, Messiah son of David), to show that he is a descendant of king David and that he will reign like David.
To solve the dilemma between the king and the one who dies as a redeemer, Messiah was given two roles:

The dilemma was solved by splitting the person of the Messiah in two: one of them, called Messiah ben Joseph (מָשִׁיחַ בֶּן־יוֹסֵף), was to raise the armies of Israel against their enemies, and, after many victories and miracles, would fall victim to Gog and Magog. The other, Messiah ben David (מָשִׁיחַ בֶּן־דָוִד), will come after him (in some legends will bring him back to life, which psychologically hints at the identity of the two), and will lead Israel to the ultimate victory, the triumph, and the Messianic era of bliss.1

This view is overly specific, since the prophet Isaiah adds a new implication to this theory of two separate messiahs: It becomes clear that he will bring himself back to life, and as such there are no two separate messiahs, but only one, who has two roles:

He saw that there was no man, and wondered that there was no one to intercede; then his own arm brought him salvation, and his righteousness upheld him.
Isaiah 59:16

Messiah would come as the son of Joseph, according to the Talmud, if people were not righteous. On the other hand, Messiah would come as the son of David, the righteous king, if they are:

Rabbi Alexandri said: Rabbi Joshua opposed two verses: it is written, And behold, one like the son of man came with the clouds of heaven (Dan. 7:13) while [elsewhere] it is written, [Behold, your king comes to you…] lowly, and riding on a donkey! (Zech. 9:7, in some translations v.9) — If they are righteous, [he will come] with the clouds of heaven; if not, lowly and riding on a donkey.
Babylonian Talmud, Seder Nezikin, Excerpt of Sanhedrin 98a4

With this revelation, let us look more closely at the two roles of Messiah, to deepen our understanding of him.

Messiah Ben Joseph

Messiah son of Joseph (משיח בן יוסף) is also called Messiah son of Ephraim (משיח בן אפרים, Messiah the descendant of Ephraim) or Ephrayim Mashiach Tzidki (Ephraim, My righteous Messiah).
The term Ephraim in this case is used collectively for Israel, thus referring to Messiah ben David.footnote 2 in 5 This, again, shows that there is one Messiah with two roles.

[Messiah ben Joseph is alluded to] already in the very birth of Joseph when his mother Rachel exclaimed, “God has taken away my disgrace” (Gen. 30:23): With prophetic vision she foresaw that an “anointed savior” will descend from Joseph and that he will remove the disgrace of Israel (analogy to Is. 4:1). In this context she called his name “Joseph, saying ‘yossef Hashem – may God add to me ben acher (lit., another son), i.e., ben acharono shel olam – one who will be at the end of the world’s time (analogy to Gen. 4:25, interpreted as messianic in meaning).
Rabbi Jacob Immanuel Schochet5

Rachel dies during Benjamin’s birth and is buried in Bethlehem (Gen. 35:16-20). But her call for another son being Messiah is fulfilled – not literally through the blood-line – but in the way announced by the prophet Micah:

But you, O Bethlehem Ephrathah, who are too little to be among the clans of Judah, from you shall come forth for me one who is to be ruler in Israel, whose coming forth is from of old, from ancient days.
Micah 5:2 (5:1 in some translations)

Messiah son of Joseph is therefore from the tribe of Judah, but he is born as the son of Rachel, and therefore the son of Joseph, by being born in the city where Rachel was buried. She died giving birth to the son she called Ben-Oni (son of my suffering), which announces that the birth of Messiah son of Joseph will not be without suffering.

Thus says the Lord: “A voice is heard in Ramah, lamentation and bitter weeping. Rachel is weeping for her children; she refuses to be comforted for her children, because they are no more.”
Jeremiah 31:15

Therefore, in my opinion, the name Ben-Oni alludes to Messiah’s birth during a time of Israel’s suffering, and to Messiah’s ultimate suffering for his people. But just like Jacob, who calls this newborn son of suffering the son of his right hand (meaning of the name Benjamin), the Lord gives the son of His right hand in Bethlehem. And although Messiah, the son of Yahweh’s right hand, had to suffer, by doing so he takes away the suffering and brings redemption. And soon he will be the king (announced in Micah’s prophecies).

The essential task of Moshiach ben Yossef is to act as precursor to Moshiach ben David: he will prepare the world for the coming of the final redeemer. Different sources attribute to him different functions, some even charging him with tasks traditionally associated with Mashiach ben David (such as the ingathering of the exiles, the rebuilding of the [temple], and so forth).5

Rabbinic tradition states that Messiah ben Joseph will fight in an God’s wars against the descendants of Esau (a symbolic image of the ennemies of God)7 in a time preceding the fulfillment of the Messianic Kingdom.8 The rabbis teach (following Sukkah 52a6) that he will then be killed during the war against evil, which is what Zechariah describes in his prophecy (Zech. 12).

His death would be followed by a period of great calamities and tribulations for Israel, and shortly after this Mashiach ben David would appear to avenge his death and inaugurate the Messianic kingdom on earth (yemot hamashiach).8

Rabbi Saadiah Gaon (among others) notes, however, that this sequence is not definite: If the people of God simply repent, they can be redeemed immediately, even before the appearance of Mashiach ben David. But if they do not repent, a time of great suffering (sometimes translated as great tribulation) will come upon them.

Rabbi Eliezer said: “If Israel repent, they will be redeemed (Jer. 3:22); if not, they will not be redeemed.”
Rabbi Joshua said to him: “If they do not repent, will they not be redeemed! But the Holy One, blessed be He, will set up a king over them, whose decrees shall be as cruel as Haman’s, whereby Israel shall engage in repentance, and he will thus bring them back to the right path.”
Babylonian Talmud, Seder Nezikin, Sanhedrin 97b

As this clearly shows, the appearance of Messiah ben Joseph depends on the spiritual condition of the people. If are unrighteous, he will come to redeem them and die as a result of it. If they still do not repent, a time of suffering will be the result (the great tribulation), ended only by the arrival of Messiah ben David.

The death of Messiah ben Joseph is a sacrifice for his people, needed to redeem them. He is the one who the people mourn for (Zech. 12). This sacrifice is not to be mistaken for a human sacrifice, which God abhors, but it much rather resembles the death of a fireman while he is saving someone, or the captain who does not leave his sinking ship before everyone is safe, eventually dying in the process. This concept can be understood as the death of a righteous saviour (called a Tsadik in Judaism, topic of a future post).

And the land shall mourn, every family apart; the family of the house of David apart, and their wives apart [Zech. 12:12]… What is the cause of the mourning? – Rabbi Dosa and the Rabbis differ on the point. One explained: The cause is the slaying of Messiah the son of Joseph, and the other explained, The cause is the slaying of the Evil Inclination.
It is well with him who explains that the cause is the slaying of Messiah the son of Joseph, since that well agrees with the Scriptural verse, And they shall look upon me because they have [pierce], and they shall mourn for him as one mourneth for his only son; but according to him who explains the cause to be the slaying of the Evil Inclination, is this an occasion for mourning? Is it not rather an occasion for rejoicing? Why then should they weep?
Babylonian Talmud, Seder Mo’ed, Excerpt of Sukka 52a6

The Rabbis said: His name is ‘the leper scholar,’ as it is written, Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows: yet we did esteem him a leper, smitten of God, and afflicted. (Is. 53:4)
Babylonian Talmud, Seder Nezikin, Excerpt from Sanhedrin 98b2

He was despised and rejected by men; a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief; and as one from whom men hide their faces he was despised, and we esteemed him not. Surely he has borne our griefs and carried our sorrows; yet we esteemed him stricken, smitten by God, and afflicted.
Is. 53:3-4

One question remains

One question remains: Who kills Messiah ben Joseph?

When they look towards me about him whom they have pierced, they shall mourn for him, as one mourns for an only child.
Part of Zech. 12:10

Messiah ben Joseph comes to redeem us, his unrighteous people, and to fight evil. So, according to the simplest interpretation of the verse (Peshat), it seems like the people who are mourning are the same as the ones who have killed him. We are so blinded by the evil – which Messiah ben Joseph came to fight and destroy – that we, the people of God, have killed him. And it is only through his death that we are now able to see the horror of our actions, and we are now able to be redeemed. This horrific act was bound to happen so that our blindness could be taken away.

Most christian translations have this translation for Zechariah 12:10:

[Thus declares the Lord, Yahweh:] And I will pour out on the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem a spirit of grace and pleas for mercy, so that, when they look on me whom they have pierced, they shall mourn for him […].

The Lord is speaking, and it seems like they have pierced him (Yahweh). Then, it suddenly speaks about another person (called him). This is because of a translation mistake. The translators of the English Standard Version (ESV) try to solve the problem:

[…] when they look on me, on him whom they have pierced, they shall mourn for him, […]

This is still confusing, because it seems as if the Lord changes his speech from I to he. In Hebrew, this is not the case, and a more accurate translation would state:

[…] when they look towards me about him whom they have pierced, they shall mourn for him, […]10

Messiah Ben David

Messiah the son of David will come at the end of times to reign (Ps. 89:27). In this psalm, Messiah is referred to as my servant David (see also The names of Messiah).

On the actual level of the physical world’s reality, Moshiach is a human being: Moshiach is a human being, born in normal fashion of human parents. The only qualification about his origins is that he is a descendant of King David (Is. 11:1-5, 2 Sam. 7:12, etc.), through the lineage of his son Solomon. From his birth onwards his righteousness will increase continually, and by virtue of his deeds he will merit sublime levels of spiritual perfection.
Rabbi Jacob Immanuel Schochet9

Messiah will not only reign, but he will come to save his people.

Behold, the days are coming, declares the Lord, when I will raise up for David a righteous Branch, and he shall reign as king and deal wisely, and shall execute justice and righteousness in the land. In his days Judah will be saved, and Israel will dwell securely. And this is the name by which he will be called: ‘The Lord is our righteousness.’
Jer. 23:5-6, parallels Jer. 33:14-16

The traditional Jewish view of Messiah says that he will, among other things, restore the Temple (Isa. 2:2, Micah 4:1, Zech. 6:13, Ezek. 37:26-28), regather the exiles of Israel (Isa. 11:12 & 43:5-6), cause all nations of the earth to be subjected or united in peace (Isa. 2:4), and put an end to sin and evil. ‘For the earth will be filled with the knowledge of the glory of the Lord as the waters cover the sea.’ (Hab. 2:14).

Many more things could be said about Messiah and his reign, but we will see him and everything fulfilled when he comes in glory.

And the Lord will be king over all the earth. On that day the Lord will be One and his name One.
Zech. 14:9 (referring to Deut. 6:4)

Parallels with Yeshua (Jesus)

While many orthodox Jews like to remind us that Yeshua (Jesus) never fulfilled all of the messianic prophecies, is it possible that he did fulfilled the role of Messiah ben Joseph?
When he came, the first clue is his name: Yeshua or Yehoshua means Yahweh is my salvation. And his adoptive father was Joseph, so he would have been known as Yeshua ben Joseph, i.e. God is my salvation in the form of the son of Joseph.

There is one key event where Yeshua claims to be the Messiah, and it is retold by Luke. Yeshua reads a passage from Isaiah, after which the people want to kill him:

And he came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up. And as was his custom, he went to the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and he stood up to read. And the scroll of the prophet Isaiah was given to him. He unrolled the scroll and found the place where it was written: “The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me to proclaim good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim liberty to the captives and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty those who are oppressed, to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favor. (Is. 61:1-2a)” And he rolled up the scroll and gave it back to the attendant and sat down. And the eyes of all in the synagogue were fixed on him. And he began to say to them: “Today this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing.” […]
When they heard these things, all in the synagogue were filled with anger. And they […] brought him to the top of the hill on which their town was built, so that they could throw him down the cliff.
Luke 4:16-19,28-30

Remember that the Jews were, in those days, under the oppression of the Romans. They were hoping for the oppression to end, for Messiah ben David to come as king. They were hoping for revenge. But Yeshua reads only half the sentence from verse 2. The full verse says:

The Spirit of the Lord God is upon me, because the Lord has anointed me to bring good news to the poor; he has sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and the opening of the prison to those who are bound; to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favor, and the day of vengeance of our God; to comfort all who mourn.
Is. 61:1-2

Not only were they surprised because Yeshua called himself the anointed one (i.e. Messiah), but also because he had not read the entire verse. Moreover, the passage goes on to explain what the reign of Messiah ben David will look like for God’s people. This is what they wanted to hear:

Strangers shall stand and tend your flocks; foreigners shall be your plowmen and vinedressers; but you shall be called the priests of the Lord; they shall speak of you as the ministers of our God; you shall eat the wealth of the nations, and in their glory you shall boast. Instead of your shame there shall be a double portion; instead of dishonor they shall rejoice in their lot; therefore in their land they shall possess a double portion; they shall have everlasting joy.
Is. 61:5-7

So when Yeshua only read part of the passage, they got angry. They did not want anyone who would tell them that he did not come as the king. They wanted the reign of Messiah to start. But in their cultural understanding, he is telling them that he came as Messiah son of Joseph, to redeem them. They knew that Messiah son of Joseph would come if they were not righteous, lowly, riding on a donkey (fulfilled when he went to Jerusalem right before his crucifixion). And who likes to be exposed?


There is only one Messiah, but there are two comings and two aspects of his ministry. The Messiah came the first time to provide atonement for sin. He is now expanding his kingdom and conquering the Gentiles, not by the sword, but by preaching. […] One day he will return to judge the earth and to bring in his Kingdom in all its fullness. 3


1 Raphael Patai, The Messiah Texts, Wayne State University Texts, Detroit 1979, p. 166. Link on Google Books
2 Babylonian Talmud, Seder Nezikin, Excerpt of Sanhedrin 98b (p. 432 of the pdf)
3 Article on Chaim.org, retrieved 2012-11-26.
4 Babylonian Talmud, Seder Nezikin, Excerpt of Sanhedrin 98a (p. 430 of the pdf)
5 Rabbi Jacob Immanuel Schochet; Moshiach Ben Yossef, article on Moshiach.com
6 Babylonian Talmud, Seder Mo’ed, Sukkah 52a
7 “[Rabbi Samuel ben Nahmani said:] Jacob our father saw that Esau’s seed would be delivered only into the hands of Joseph’s seed for it is said, And the house of Jacob shall be a fire and the house of Joseph a flame, and the house of Esau for stubble etc.” (Ob. 1:18) from: Babylonian Talmud, Seder Nezikin, Baba Bathra 123b
8 Parsons, John J.; Mashiach ben Yosef – Joseph as a type of the Messiah; Article on hebrew4christians.com
9 Rabbi Jacob Immanuel Schochet; The Personality of Moshiach, article on Moshiach.com
10 Jeff A. Benner (the Ancient Hebrew Research Centre); Zechariah 12:10 – “Pierced him” or “Pierced me?” , video on Youtube

The Lord God, who gathers the outcasts

“And the foreigners who join themselves to the Lord, to minister to him, to love the name of the Lord, and to be his servants, everyone who keeps the Sabbath and does not profane it, and holds fast my covenant — these I will bring to my holy mountain, and make them joyful in my house of prayer; their burnt offerings and their sacrifices will be accepted on my altar; for my house shall be called a house of prayer for all peoples.”
The Lord God, who gathers the outcasts of Israel, declares, “I will gather yet others to him besides those already gathered.”
Isaiah 56:6-8

Yeshua and the Oral Law

To a certain degree, Yeshua (Jesus) followed Karaite Jewish principles. He rejected the Oral Law and traditions, where they contradict the Old Testament (Tanakh):

Then Pharisees and scribes came to Jesus from Jerusalem and said: “Why do your disciples break the tradition of the elders? For they do not wash their hands when they eat.
He answered them, “And why do you break the commandment of God for the sake of your tradition? For God commanded, ‘Honor your father and your mother,’ and, ‘Whoever reviles father or mother must surely die.’ But you say, ‘If anyone tells his father or his mother, “What you would have gained from me is a korban (offering to God),” he need not honor his father.’ So for the sake of your tradition you have made void the word of God. You hypocrites! Well did Isaiah prophesy of you, when he said: “‘This people honors me with their lips, but their heart is far from me; in vain do they worship me, teaching as doctrines the commandments of men.(Quote from Isaiah 29:13)’”
Mat. 15:1-9 (also in Mark 7:1-13)

The argument is not whether washing your hands is important or not, but making a law out of it. Yeshua never says that it is wrong to wash your hands. In fact, he kept some of the traditions: For instance he celebrated the feast of Hanukkah (חֲנֻכָּה, see John 10:22-39), which does not contradict the Written Law.

The Law On Washing Hands
Rabbi ‘Awira expounded sometimes in the name of Rabbi Ammi and at other times in the name of Rabbi Assi: Whoever eats bread without previously washing the hands is as though he had intercourse with a harlot; as it is said, For on account of a harlot, to a loaf of bread (Prov. 6:26). Raba said: [On that interpretation] the verse, For on account of a harlot, to a loaf of bread’ should have read: ‘On account of a loaf of bread, to a harlot’! But, said Raba, [the meaning is:] Whoever has intercourse with a harlot will in the end go seeking a loaf of bread.
Rabbi Zerika said in the name of R. Eleazar: Whoever makes light of washing the hands [before and after a meal] will be uprooted from the world.
Rabbi Hiyya ben Ashi said in the name of Rab: With the first washing [before the meal] it is necessary to lift the hands up; with the latter washing [after the meal] it is necessary to lower the hands. There is a similar teaching: Who washes his hands [before the meal] must lift them up lest the water pass beyond the joint, flow back and render them unclean. Rabbi Abbahu says: Whoever eats bread without first wiping his hands is as though he eats unclean food; as it is stated: And the Lord said: Even thus shall the children of Israel eat their bread unclean. (Ez. 6:13, out of context)
Babylonian Talmud, Seder Nashim, Excerpt of Sotah 4b

As a response to the Pharisee’s question, Yeshua condenses a rather complicated tradition from the Oral Law to show how it contradicts the Written Law.
Yeshua’s conclusion is obvious: The Oral Law does in no way supersede or nullify the Written Law. In fact, he told his followers not to follow the rabbinical decrees (see The Seat Of Moses). Rather, he took the freedom to observe some traditions, not as commandments, but because it was his culture. Yeshua never rejected the culture of his people. But since he was a true Jew, one who would set YHVH (God) above everything else, he had to reject the contradictory Oral Law. Instead, he kept the Written Law given by YHVH (God) to Moses and the people.

The Tradition: Honouring Your Parents1
Two rabbinic traditions are involved in this debate: First, honoring your parents is considered by the Mishnah to include financial support. The second tradition is about a vow to offer one’s belongings to the Lord, where the vow involves another person. When someone makes that vow, the other person who is involved can not profit from those belongings.

[If one vows to another:] “May I be forbidden to you, (i.e., may any benefit from me be prohibited to you), the [person who was prohibited by is prohibited [from deriving any benefit from him].”
Mishnah, Seder Nashim, Excerpt of Nedarim 5:4

Or put more simply: If my parents ask me for support, and I make a vow in the terms of: “Whatever you may ask from me shall be a korban (offering to the Lord)”, then whatever they ask from me can ONLY be used as a gift devoted to God, and it can never be converted to another use. Therefore, my parents would never have any profit from me even if they are in need. According to the tradition of the first century, this vow would be valid, and I would not need to honor my parents, or help them in any physical way.
The Mishna gives an example of this practice:2

It once happened in Bet Horon that one’s father was forbidden to benefit from [his own son]. Now he [the son] was marrying off his son [and wanted his father to participate], [so] he said to his friend:
May the courtyard and the banquet be a gift to you, on the condition that my father come and feast with us at the banquet.
Thereupon [the friend] said:
If it is truly mine then let it all be consecrated for Heaven!
He said to [his friend]:
But I did not give it to you so that you consecrate it to Heaven.
[The friend] responded:
You gave it to me so that you and your father may eat and drink together and become reconciled with one another while the sin of breaking the vow should be on [my] head.
Mishnah, Seder Nashim, Excerpt of Nedarim 5:6

Note that as a result of events similar to the one recounted above, a decree was made after the first century (Mishnah, Seder Nashim, Nedarim 9:1), allowing for a person’s vow to be annulled so that they could honor their parents.


1 Article on NazareneSpace.com
2 Mishnah, Seder Nashim, Nedarim 5:6


In western cultures, in order to emphasize something, a person who is speaking raise their voice. In written text, an important passage is often emphasized by underlining it or by using a bold typeface.
In Hebrew culture however, the same meaning is either repeated in a slightly different way or contrasted through its opposite meaning.


It seems that the Hebrews knew thousands of years ago what we are learning now: Repetition makes it easier for us to remember something. Repetition is what everyone uses to memorize any type of information. In Hebrew, it is used as an emphasis.


So God created man in his own image,
in the image of God he created him,
male and female he created them.
Gen. 1:27

In this next example, keep in mind that the word for spirit, in Hebrew, can also mean breath:

The Spirit of God has made me,
and the breath of the Almighty gives me life.
Job 33.4

Here, the the exact same Hebrew word was repeated, not only the meaning:

To you they cried and were rescued;
in you they trusted and were not put to shame.
Psalm 22:5

These repetitions occur as much in the Gospels, which again shows how deeply rooted this Hebrew mindset was even in the first century. In this case, the idea, i.e. the concept of influencing the surroundings, is repeated:

You are the salt of the earth.
You are the light of the world.
Mat. 7:13a&14a


The contrast shows the importance of a certain statement through the opposite meaning. For instance, you will only notice that bread needs salt if you have tasted unsalted bread before.


The book of Proverbs is probably the one where this method of emphasis is most used:

Blessings are on the head of the righteous,
but the mouth of the wicked conceals violence.

Whoever walks in integrity walks securely,
but he who makes his ways crooked will be found out.
Prov. 10:6,9

Yeshua (Jesus) uses this method in his teachings as well:

[The kingdom of God] is like a grain of mustard seed, which, when sown on the ground, is the smallest of all the seeds on earth,
yet when it is sown it grows up and becomes larger than all the garden plants and puts out large branches, so that the birds of the air can make nests in its shade.
Mark 4:31-32

The Oral Law And The Written Law

The Oral Law contains the legal and interpretative traditions that, according to tradition itself, were given by God orally to Moses (מֹשֶׁה, Moshe) at Mount Sinai, together with the Written Law (see definition below). Therefore, according to the rabbis, the Oral Law is equal to and the only rightful interpretation of the Written Law. They were not to be written, but passed down orally through the ages.


  • The Oral Law (תורה שבעל פה, Torah she-be-`al peh) is also called: Oral Torah, Oral Traditions, Traditions of the Elders or, in the New Testament, Works of the Law.
  • The Written Law (תּוֹרָה, Torah) is also called Written Torah, the five books of Moses or the Pentateuch. It is the first part of the Old Testament (תַּנַ”ךְ, Tanakh).

The Oral Law contains the written rabbinic texts (like the Mishnah, the Talmud, and the Midrash) explaining the traditions of the people of Israel as well as the interpretations of biblical texts. It is called Oral Law because it was originally handed down orally, which means that young scholars (like Paul) had to learn these traditions by heart, or conveyed by word of mouth and memorized, as the Mishnah states.1

Before the destruction of the second temple, it was forbidden to write down the Oral Law (i.e. the explanation of the Torah). However, with the fall of Jerusalem in 70 A.D., the existence of Jewish culture became threatened and therefore, publication was the only way to ensure it could be preserved.2 A first redaction of the Oral Law, in the form of the Mishnah, was completed around 200 A.D. Over the next 400 years, this collection was extended through debate and discussion (Gemara) in the two centers of Jewish life, Israel and Babylonia. The Gemara with the Mishnah came to be edited together into compilations known as the Talmud.3

Who is speaking?

Besides the fact that there are quite a few contradictions between the Oral and the Written Law, another linguistic difference is quite striking. And that is the person who speaks, the subject. This is a comparison between the two:

And YHVH said to Moses: “Is YHVH’s hand shortened? Now you shall see whether my word will come true for you or not.” Num. 11:23

As you can see, like almost everywhere in the Written Torah, the Lord (YHVH) speaks directly to Moses and the people. Now the following passage is from the Mishnah, and it shows the most common wording of the Oral Torah:4

From which time are we to recite the shema in the morning? When [there is enough light so that] one can distinguish between [the] blue [strands] and [the] white [strands of the tzitzit]. Rabbi Eliezer says, Between [the colors] blue and green [and one may recite it] until sunrise. Rabbi Yehoshua says, Until the third hour [of the day], since it is the habit [of the children] of kings to rise at the end of the third hour [therefore it is within the time limit of “and speak of them … when you arise” [referring to the recital of shema (Deuteronomy 6:7) i.e., when all men, even late risers such as princes arise from their beds]. Mishnah, Excerpt from Zeraim, Berakhot 1:2

In the Oral Torah, the rabbis are the ones who speak and proclaim the different statements: They have a debate as to how the Written Torah is to be interpreted. Furthermore, there is no consensus in the Oral Torah: Different rabbis have different opinions and they rarely agree. In the Written Torah on the other hand, there are no contradictions. YHVH never contradicts himself.

Karaite Judaism

The Karaites reject the Oral Law and rely only on the Tanakh (Old Testament) as acceptable scripture. Some Karaites go as far as only accepting the Peshat meaning (plain meaning, see chapter on PaRDeS) of the text.


1 Mishna, Seder Nezikin, Avot 1:1. The manner of teaching and memorization is described in Seder Mo’ed, Eruvin 54b
2 Tosefta on Seder Nezikin, Eduyot 1:1 “When the Sages went to Yavneh they said: The time will come that a man will seek a matter in the Torah but will not find it. He will seek a matter from the Scribes but will not find it…They said: Let us begin [to record] with Hillel and Shammai.”
3 Article on Wikipedia
4 Translation by emishnah.com

The seat of Moses

The following passage seems to contain a controversy, where Yeshua seems to order his followers to do what the Pharisees say, yet not to do it:

Then Yeshua said to the crowds and to his disciples:
“The scribes and the Pharisees sit on Moses’ seat, so do and observe whatever they tell you, but not the works they do. For they preach, but do not practice. They tie up heavy burdens, hard to bear, and lay them on people’s shoulders, but they themselves are not willing to move them with their finger. They do all their deeds to be seen by others. For they make their tefillin broad and their tzitzit long, and they love the place of honor at feasts and the best seats in the synagogues and greetings in the marketplaces and being called rabbi by others. But you are not to be called rabbi, for you have one teacher, and you are all brothers.”
Mat. 23:1-8

First off, Moses’ seat was a seat in the synagoges where the rabbi who was teaching would sit. And it seems like they were often teaching works. The term works of the Law refers to the Oral Law (see a future post, not yet written).
Now according to this passage, we should follow whatever the rabbis say, yet we should not follow their works, i.e. follow the Oral Law. This makes sense, but then comes the next controversy: If he commands us to follow the rabbis, why does Yeshua speak so badly of them in the following verses?
The answer can be found in the Shem Tov’s manuscript. Matthew probably wrote his gospel in Hebrew, and this is the name of the owner of one of several manuscripts of the gospel of Matthew that was kept in Hebrew (This topic is to be covered in a future post).1&2 In this manuscript, there is a small difference in the text. And that difference is only 1 letter, but it completely changes the meaning of the verse:

Mat. 23:3, modern Hebrew (translated from Greek):
לכן כל אשר יאמרו לכם תשמרו לעשות אך כמעשיהם לא תעשו כי אמרים הם ואינם עשים
Mat. 23:3, Shem Tov’s Manuscript:
עתה כל אשר יאמר לכם שמרו ועשו ובתקנותיהם ומעשיהם אל תעשו שהם אומרים והם אינם עושים

This slight difference is the subject of the sentence: they. In Shem Tov’s manuscript, the same verb is conjugated with he.3 Effectively, Yeshua is saying this (according to Shem Tov’s manuscript):

Then Yeshua said to the crowds and to his disciples:
“The scribes and the Pharisees sit on Moses’ seat, so do and observe whatever he (Moses) tells you, but not the works they do.”
Mat. 23:2-3

About the Hebrew gospel of Matthew

These are some sources used here, until I have enough time to cover the topic:

1 Benner, Jeff A., Ancient Hebrew Research Centre in Semitic Origins of the NT
2 Gordon, Nehemia, The Greek Jesus vs. the Hebrew Yeshua
3 Wiktionnary, they will say vs. he will say.