Nowadays, the Jewish year begins with the feast of Rosh Hashanah (Feast of trumpets, ראש השנה), which usually somewhere in September. This is not, however, the beginning of the Hebrew year as ordained by God.1
In biblical times, the year began with the month of Nisan2 (נִיסָן), called Aviv in the Torah (5 books of Moses: Lev. 23:5; Num. 9:1-5, 28:16). The name Nisan is of Babylonian origin. Nisan usually falls in March–April on the Gregorian calendar.
This month shall be for you the beginning of months. It shall be the first month of the year for you.
It is during this first month that the Passover (Pesach, פֶּסַח) is celebrated.
Overview over the year
In some years, Rosh Hashanah is postponed. In that case, Kislev can be shortened to 29 days, and the year is called a short (chaser) year, or Marcheshvan can be lengthened to 30 days, and the year is called a full (maleh) year. In a regular (kesidran) year, Marcheshvan has 29 days and Kislev has 30 days though.
The calendar rules have been designed to ensure that Rosh Hashanah does not fall on a Sunday, Wednesday or Friday. This is to ensure that Yom Kippur does not directly precede or follow Shabbat, which would create practical difficulties, and that Hoshana Rabbah is not on a Shabbat, in which case certain ceremonies would be lost for a year.
The solar year is about eleven days longer than twelve lunar months. The Bible does not directly mention the addition of “embolismic” or intercalary months. However, without the insertion of embolismic months, Jewish festivals would gradually shift outside of the seasons required by the Torah. This has been ruled as implying a requirement for the insertion of embolismic months to reconcile the lunar cycles to the seasons, which are integral to solar yearly cycles.3
The following table gives an overview over the Hebrew calendar:
|1||נִיסָן||Nissan||30 days||Nisanu||Passover||Called Abib (Ex. 13:4, 23:15, 34:18; Deut. 16:1) and Nisan (Est. 3:7)|
|2||אִיָּר / אייר||Iyar||29 days||Ayaru||Pesach Sheni, Lag B’Omer||Called Ziv in 1 Kings 6:1, 6:37|
|3||סִיוָן / סיוון||Siwan||30 days||Simanu||Shavuot|
|4||תַּמּוּז||Tamuz||29 days||Dumuzu||17th of Tammuz||Named for the Babylonian god Dumuzi/Tammuz|
|5||אָב||Ab||30 days||Abu||Tisha B’Av, Tu B’Av|
|7||תִּשׁרִי||Tishrei||30 days||Tashritu||Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur, Sukkot, Shmini Atzeret, Simchat Torah||Called Ethanim in 1 Kings 8:2, 1st month of civil year.|
|8||מַרְחֶשְׁוָן / מרחשוון||Marcheshvan, Cheshvan||29 or 30 days||Arakhsamna||Called Bul in 1 Kings 6:38|
|9||כִּסְלֵו / כסליו||Kislev, Chisleu, Chislev||29 or 30 days||Kislimu||Hanukkah|
|10||טֵבֵת||Tebeth||29 days||Tebetu||10th of Tevet|
|11||שְׁבָט||Shevat, Shebat, Sebat||30 days||Shabatu||Tu Bishvat|
|12L*||אֲדָר א׳||Adar I*||30 days||*Only in Leap years.|
|12||אֲדָר / אֲדָר ב׳||Adar, Adar II||29 days||Adaru||Purim|